Cigarette smoking (CS) has clearly negative effects on the musculoskeletal system. Epidemiologic evidence also shows that smoking is a risk factor for chronic pain, including back pain. In terms of the musculoskeletal system, the relationships of cigarette smoking with the reduction of bone mineral content, osteoporosis and fractures are the best known. However, there is evidence of negative influence on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, decreased muscle mass and strength, muscle pain, tendon degeneration and ruptures. Furthermore, smoking delays fracture and tendon healing and is associated with numerous post operative short term complications that drive up health care utilization and expenditures. Therefore, quitting smoking is highly recommended to prevent musculoskeletal diseases.
Smoking: Bad News for Muscles, Tendons and Ligaments
About the Author: Dean Smith, DC, PhD
Dean Smith, DC, PhD, husband, and father of two children, is a highly respected health and wellness authority. He is a chiropractor at Essence of Wellness Chiropractic Center and a researcher and clinical professor at Miami University. Dr. Smith incorporates lifestyle intervention (exercise, nutrition, other non-drug methods) with chiropractic adjustments and other manual methods to encourage optimal wellness. He has helped countless adults and children lead a life of wellness. His research interests lie broadly in the area of human movement and coordination. He is most interested in how chiropractic, exercise and rehabilitation affect human performance. His scientific articles have been published in such journals as Human Movement Science, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Chiropractic Research Journal, Chiropractic and Osteopathy and The Open Neurology Journal. His training includes a Master’s degree in exercise science, a Doctor of Chiropractic degree and a PhD in brain and cognitive science with a focus on motor control and coordination. The International Federation of Sports Chiropractic has awarded him with the International Chiropractic Sport Science Diploma (ICSSD).