Smoking: Bad News for Muscles, Tendons and Ligaments

By |2014-12-09T08:33:08-05:00December 9th, 2014|Categories: Uncategorized|Tags: , , , , , |0 Comments

Cigarette smoking (CS) has clearly negative effects on the musculoskeletal system.  Epidemiologic evidence also shows that smoking is a risk factor for chronic pain, including back pain. In terms of the musculoskeletal system, the relationships of cigarette smoking with the reduction of bone mineral content, osteoporosis and fractures are the best known.  However, there is evidence of [...]